The advice sheets below have the latest information on animal health and welfare. If you need more advice call 01753 475111 (Enforcement & Regulatory option).
In the guide
This guidance is for England
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious viral disease that affects all cloven-hoofed animals, particularly cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and deer.
It is an acute infectious disease, which causes fever followed by development of vesicles (blisters), chiefly in the mouth and on the feet. The disease is caused by a virus, of which there are seven types.
The disease can have a serious economic impact due to its ability to spread very rapidly and its profound effect on productivity. A very small quantity of the virus is capable of infecting an animal and the disease could spread rapidly throughout the country if it is not controlled quickly.
Affected animals display vesicles on the feet or in the mouth. Other symptoms depend on the species of animal that is affected.
More information on symptoms, pictures of infected animals, etc are available on the GOV.UK website in the document How to spot foot-and-mouth disease (opens in a new window).
The owner of a suspected animal or carcase (or their vet) must by law report the fact to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) regional operations director by contacting the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA - 03000 200 301). The owner is not expected to diagnose the disease, but all owners and stockmen should make themselves familiar with the symptoms and call in a veterinary surgeon as early as possible. Never ask another stock owner to look at the suspected animal.
The premises where disease is confirmed will be put under restriction so no animals can move on or off. It will be referred to as the infected premises. An approved disinfectant must be used to disinfect footwear, clothing and vehicles before entering or leaving the premises.
A protection zone of at least 3km and a surveillance zone of at least 10km around the infected premises where the disease has been confirmed are put in place. There are certain restrictions for keepers of livestock who are in the protection and surveillance zones.
Also it is likely that a national movement ban will be imposed on any animals that are susceptible to the disease. Details of this will be announced by Defra straight away.
Foot-and-mouth disease is not believed to affect human health.
The Food Standards Agency has advised that the disease in animals has no implications for the human food chain.
Good biosecurity. Biosecurity measures should be practised routinely. Trucks, lorries, market places and loading ramps - in or over which infected animals may have travelled - are a disease risk until properly cleansed and disinfected. Roads may also become contaminated, and viruses may be picked up and carried on the wheels of passing vehicles.
The boots, clothing and hands of any person who has been in contact with infected animals can spread the disease.
There are a range of regulatory measures to help reduce the risk of spread of any notifiable disease before it is detected (silent spread) and to help with tracing of animals if any incursion was to occur. These include requirements for cleansing and disinfecting livestock vehicles. The Animal Gatherings Order 2010 and its associated licence and biosecurity advice (opens in a new window) specify requirements to reduce the risk of spread of disease at livestock markets and shows throughout Great Britain.
Further guidance on disease prevention and biosecurity measures (opens in a new window) is available on the GOV.UK website.
The Animal Health Act 1981 (as amended by the Animal Health Act 2002) provides for the control of outbreaks of animal diseases, including FMD. This includes the slaughter of any animals for the purposes of preventing the spread of foot-and-mouth disease.
The Animal Health Act 1981 (Amendment) Regulations 2005 change the Secretary of State's previous discretion to slaughter any animals affected by FMD to a duty to slaughter all susceptible animals, but only on an infected premises. The Regulations also allow certain exceptions to this duty to slaughter in laboratories, zoos, wildlife parks, rare breeds and separate production units.
The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (England) Order 2006 sets out the procedures and controls required on suspicion and confirmation of FMD, and provides for the creation of a number of zones providing different levels of control. The Order also introduces a number of treatments, such as heat treatment (cooking), deboning and maturation that have to be applied to meat and other animal products from an infected area.
The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Control of Vaccination) (England) Regulations 2006 allow vaccination as an acceptable disease control strategy in addition to the slaughter policy. The Regulations prohibit vaccination except under licence by the Secretary of State and also ban the export of vaccinated animals to other EU member states. The Regulations provide for control zones both where vaccination takes place and where it is expressly prohibited. The Regulations also introduce treatments for meat and other animal products from vaccinated animals.
Livestock keepers can stay up to date with the latest FMD developments via the APHA alerts subscription service (opens in a new window).
It is a criminal offence to fail to comply with these provisions. The maximum penalty is a fine and six months' imprisonment.
Last reviewed / updated: September 2017
This information is intended for guidance; only the courts can give an authoritative interpretation of the law.
The guide's 'Key legislation' links may only show the original version of the legislation, although some amending legislation is linked to separately where it is directly related to the content of a guide. Information on amendments to UK legislation can be found on each link's 'More Resources' tab; amendments to EU legislation are usually incorporated into the text.